Systems to Incorporate Natural Lighting in Your Projects

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There is nothing more rational than taking advantage of natural lighting as a guarantee to improve the spatial quality of buildings, as well as saving energy. The awareness of the finitude of natural resources and the demands for reducing energy consumption has increasingly diminished the prominence of artificial lighting systems, forcing architects to seek more efficient design solutions. With this goal in mind, different operations have been adopted to capture natural light. These systems can also guarantee excellent spatial properties if projected correctly. Below we have gathered five essential systems for zenithal lighting.

Skylights

© Matheus Pereira © Matheus Pereira

Established as horizontal openings strategically positioned on the roofs of buildings, skylights allow the direct entrance of natural light into the internal region of the construction. It commonly receives an application of translucent glass on its upper side, allowing a higher percentage of light into the space. They should be used with care, since they tend

Vila de Carvão Sangdong / Studio suspicion . Image © Ryu In Keun
© Matheus Pereira
Hospital Sarah Kubitschek Salvador / João Filgueiras Lima. Image © Nelson Kon
© Matheus Pereira
Light Folds / WY-TO Architects. Image © Svend Andersen
© Matheus Pereira
Panteão Romano. Image © Cortesia de Flickr user lysander07 (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
© Matheus Pereira
Viviendo con la luz del sol / MOVEDESIGN. Image © Yousuke Harigane
© Matheus Pereira
Biblioteca Viipuri / Alvar Aalto. Image Cortesia de The Finnish Committee for the Restoration of Viipuri Library
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Concrete Shells: Design Principles and Examples

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Capela Bosjes / Steyn Studio. Image © Adam Letch Capela Bosjes / Steyn Studio. Image © Adam Letch Let's think of a paper sheet. If we tried to stiffen it from its primary state, it couldn't support its own weight. However, if we bend it, the sheet achieves a new structural quality. The shells act in the same way. "You can't imagine a form that doesn't need a structure or a structure that doesn't have a form. Every form has a structure, and every structure has a form. Thus, you can't conceive a form without automatically conceiving a structure and vice versa". [1] The importance of the structural thought that culminates in the constructed object is then, taken by the relationship between form and structure. The shells arise from the association between concrete and steel and are structures whose continuous curved surfaces have a minimal thickness; thus they are widely used in roofs of large spans without intermediate supports. In structural terms,
Casca de Félix Candela. Image Cortesia de Alexander Eisenschmidt
Casca de Félix Candela. Image Cortesia de Alexander Eisenschmidt
Casca de Félix Candela. Image Cortesia de Alexander Eisenschmidt
Restaurante Los Manantiales. Image © Erik Eugenio Martínez Parachini
Hipódromo de la Zarzuela / Carlos Arniches + Martín Domínguez + Eduardo Torroja. Image © Ana Amado
Igreja da Pampulha / Oscar Niemeyer. Image © Felipe Arruda
Capela Bosjes / Steyn Studio. Image © Adam Letch
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The Role of Color in Architecture: Visual Effects and Psychological Stimuli

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Escola em Alto de Pinheiros / Base Urbana + Pessoa Arquitetos. Image © Pedro Vanucchi Escola em Alto de Pinheiros / Base Urbana + Pessoa Arquitetos. Image © Pedro Vanucchi Colors and their perceptions are responsible for a series of conscious and subconscious stimuli in our psycho-spatial relationship. Despite its presence and its variations, it is present in all places. Have you ever wondered what its role is in architecture? As well as the constructive elements that make up an architectural object, the application of colors on surfaces also influences the user's experience of the space. According to Israel Pedrosa, "a colorful sensation is produced by the nuances of light refracted or reflected by a material, commonly the word color is designated to those shades that function as stimuli in a chromatic sensation." [1]
Flickr Pov Stele. Licença CC BY-SA 2.0. ImageCasa Gilardi / Luis Barragán Flickr Pov Stele. Licença CC BY-SA 2.0. ImageCasa Gilardi / Luis Barragán

Describing the relationship of colors and the different features that govern them, or even the multitude of existing studies regarding these theories, is as complex as it is

Hotel Camino Real de Polanco / Ricardo Legorreta. Image © Flickr kieranmcglone
Flickr Pov Stele. Licença CC BY-SA 2.0. ImageCasa Gilardi / Luis Barragán
Prestwood Infant School Dining Hall / De Rosee Sa. Image Cortesia de De Rosee Sa
Prestwood Infant School Dining Hall / De Rosee Sa. Image Cortesia de De Rosee Sa
Fundação Esther Koplowitz para Pacientes com Paralisia Cerebral / Hans Abaton. Image © Hans Abaton
Superkilen / BIG. Image © Dragor Luft
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Tensegrity Structures: What They Are and What They Can Be

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Buckminster Fuller <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/poetarchitecture/26806590126/in/photolist-GQNMjo-hESW2z-GMT4BP-ejcfv3-criycW-r4RXrm-qixJV2-3ZnJR-3ZnKg-5mMEfE-5mHpSD-5mMEDd-VR9y-VR7Y-VR9e-VR7D-VR8M-8y9tDo-8y6sNX-qnhPRv-sSPR3B-ta1L5A-sSFpTo-t7XFvh-t7Xf6u-t7WDZd-t7W8aY-sSFCyf-t7WNX3-sdgce7-sSGbAS-sSEAJd-sSH5eG-t7WeNY-sdsw7p-sdrtJa-t7WvQs-ta2Hj3-taiBsF-tagNuP-sSPTcM-t7WCsq-ta1wys-sSNNhP-ta2Tpo-sSFMmJ-sSPk8M-sdrEH4-ta2Jc5-sSHcrN'>©POET ARCHITECTURE via Flickr </a> Licence Public Domain Mark 1.0 Buckminster Fuller <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/poetarchitecture/26806590126/in/photolist-GQNMjo-hESW2z-GMT4BP-ejcfv3-criycW-r4RXrm-qixJV2-3ZnJR-3ZnKg-5mMEfE-5mHpSD-5mMEDd-VR9y-VR7Y-VR9e-VR7D-VR8M-8y9tDo-8y6sNX-qnhPRv-sSPR3B-ta1L5A-sSFpTo-t7XFvh-t7Xf6u-t7WDZd-t7W8aY-sSFCyf-t7WNX3-sdgce7-sSGbAS-sSEAJd-sSH5eG-t7WeNY-sdsw7p-sdrtJa-t7WvQs-ta2Hj3-taiBsF-tagNuP-sSPTcM-t7WCsq-ta1wys-sSNNhP-ta2Tpo-sSFMmJ-sSPk8M-sdrEH4-ta2Jc5-sSHcrN'>©POET ARCHITECTURE via Flickr </a> Licence Public Domain Mark 1.0 Through his extensive research, inventions and structural experiments, Buckminster Fuller created the term tensegrity to describe "self-tensioning structures composed of rigid structures and cables, with forces of traction and compression, which form an integrated whole" [1]. In other words, tensegrity is the property demonstrated by a system that employs cables (traction) and rigidity of other elements (usually steel, wood or bamboo) capable of acting under the intrinsic stresses (traction and compression) together and simultaneously, giving greater resistance and formal stability. It creates an interconnected structure that works biologically like muscles and bones, where one element strengthens the other.  For Georgia Victor, "It is used today to explain the organization of the elements that make up living beings according to the characteristics of their geometry. This spatial organization forms a continuous field of tensions
Parametric Tensegrity Structure for Local Art Fair. Image © Gernot Riether
Neddle Tower <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/shonk/10988340305/in/photolist-hK17Kc-bqZB6j-bDUxS8-aN5E7k-LUYyk-gvYi8C-7hWdv4-7hW4eV-7hW2HK-9eUecL-9eUeeW-pqcJ3R-4e7qQK-22oKGZQ-9fevBy-3vEwD-c98SUq-7ehrdz-cdL4NJ-6jgLfK-6jgMaX-jNr8pe-23tprhr-Gdv9SP-eBTha6-7dJj1C-6c1hnk-7cEmjz-77pwHv-7r37aH-6EsM3o-mzsV-9wKnxw-bz6KnE-Z5ouWC-9iGN54-wv9u2n-Xc2bDP-63KGHV-2tDHgo-7amUVH-7aqG7h-2tzkv6-6Fbbbp-9wKnzd-fVceeu-qTyYEX-9nzDBL-9nyCSC-9nzDCm'>© Clayton Shonkwiler via Flickr </a> Licence CC BY 2.0
Easy K_Kenneth Snelson <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/robinzblog/8576091099/in/photolist-e4QH6D-dSKCa-5vk5R2-68Z6KN-wv9u2n-8qgmVe-qbbED-9hGXja-8qgmQr-bqZB6j-hK17Kc-2tDHgo-kzMKM4-8gCCQ6-e4WjKd-e4Wmu5-7VPp8U-6oTHSJ-agwVJJ-z3uBQ-djDSqL-8fwSAR-SEJotg-e4Wm3o-RMJEAz-51ktVx-5UQg4H-4FrTXP-2tzkv6-5AFDd-3f4wZk-qhXwX2-2tzkGM-5V4rpC-bDUxS8-qhZcaF-3f4x3M-22dh-5UQiE8-aAQEi-68UTNp-d9R275-37zCn4-nbmqNb-8fwSfR-djBVtP-8xUti4-58iroJ-z3uBT-6T5Wy5'>© Robin Capper via Flickr </a> Licence CC BY-NC 2.0
Parametric Tensegrity Structure for Local Art Fair. Image © Gernot Riether
Parametric Tensegrity Structure for Local Art Fair. Image © Gernot Riether
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Capitals Of Classical Antiquity: Understand The Difference Between The 5 Orders

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© Matheus Pereira © Matheus Pereira Whether it's to start analyzing a detail or impressing someone in conversation, understanding a classical building begins with an awareness of the different classical orders of architecture. In the historical records of architecture, the first account of the orders was written by Vitruvius: "[...] The orders came to provide a range of architectural expressions, ranging from roughness and firmness to slenderness and delicacy. In true classical design, order choice is a vital issue—it is the choice of tone," [1] which for the author, synthesizes the "architecture grammar." [2] According to John Summerson, author of The Classical Language of Architecture, "[...] a classic building is one whose decorative elements derive directly or indirectly from the architectural vocabulary of the ancient world—the 'classical' world [...]. These elements are easily recognizable, such as, for example, the five standard types of columns that are used in a
Doric Order. Image © Matheus Pereira
Ionic Order. Image © Matheus Pereira
Corinthian Order. Image © Matheus Pereira
Tuscan Order. Image © Matheus Pereira
Composite Order. Image © Matheus Pereira
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Steel Frame and Wood Frame: The Benefits of Dry Construction Systems

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You have to consider many factors when designing an architectural project in order to ensure quality and value. The construction technique is in most cases the first item to be evaluated, because it is the one factor that properly materializes the proposed design and determines the efficiency of the project in terms of time, costs, labor, finishes and final quality.
Núcleo Senai de Sustentabilidade / Arqbox (Construção em Wood Frame). Image Cortesia de Arqbox Núcleo Senai de Sustentabilidade / Arqbox (Construção em Wood Frame). Image Cortesia de Arqbox

The construction sector is responsible for producing a large amount of waste. According to Elcio Carelli, economist and master of environmental technology, 60% of the total waste produced in Brazilian cities comes from civil construction [1]. Diana Scillag, director of the Brazilian Council of Sustainable Construction (CBCS), found that while only 20% to 50% of natural goods are actually consumed by the sector, the urban solid waste generated double this number [2]. In addition to wasting resources, traditional construction systems, such as masonry and

Refúgio São Chico / Studio Paralelo (Steel Frame Construction). Image © Eduardo Aigner
Steel Frame. Image © Matheus Pereira
Sistema Metalcon. Image Cortesia de Cintac
Refúgio São Chico / Studio Paralelo (Steel Frame Construction). Image © Studio Paralelo
Light Steel Frame <a href='https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light_Steel_Framing#/media/File:LSFosb05.jpg'>© Steelman via Flickr </a> Licença CC BY-SA 2.5
Wood Frame. Image © Matheus Pereira
Núcleo Senai de Sustentabilidade / Arqbox (Construção em Wood Frame). Image Cortesia de Arqbox
Wood Frame <a href='https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Framing_(construction)#/media/File:Salarom_Sabah_Frame-of-a-new-house-01.jpg'>© Cccefalon via Wikimedia </a> Licença CC BY-SA 3.0
Wood Frame <a href='https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Framing_(construction)#/media/File:Wood-framed_house.jpg'>© Jaksmata via Wikimedia </a> Licença CC BY-SA 3.0
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Furniture Designed by Brazilian Architects

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Poltrona Bowl_Lina Bo Bardi. Image © Nelson Kon Poltrona Bowl_Lina Bo Bardi. Image © Nelson Kon For some practitioners of architecture, the insatiable desire to draw everything, from the largest to the smallest to take full control of the project, echoes the famous phrase uttered by Mies Van Der Rohe: "God is in the details." Similarly, designing furniture provides another creative outlet for in-depth exploration of human-scale works of architecture. Throughout the history of the Brazilian Architecture, and especially since the modernist movement, architects not only became known for their building designs, but also for their detailed chairs and tables. Several of these pieces of furniture were initially designed for a specific project and then went into mass production due to their popularity.  In this impressive list of works, chairs and armchairs stand out for their incorporation of structural and technical-constructive qualities, materiality, ergonomics, and aesthetic lightness. Other pieces featured show the re-tooling and re-thinking of bars, carts,
Poltrona Dorival_Arthur Casas. Image © Fernando Laszlo via Dpot (Divulgação)
Aparador Onda_Arthur Casas. Image © Fernando Laszlo Cortesia Etel Interiores
Cadeira Brisa com braço_Carlos Motta. Image Cortesia de Dpot
Cadeira Farofa_FGMF + Estúdio Paulo Alves. Image © Lucas Rosin
Cadeira Nóize_Guto Requena. Image Cortesia de Guto Requena
carrinho Bar Totó_Isay Weinfeld © Fernando Laszlo. Image © Fernando Laszlo Cortesia Etel Interiores
Aparador Isay_Isay Weinfeld © Fernando Laszlo. Image © Fernando Laszlo Cortesia Etel Interiores
Carrinho de Chá_Jorge Zalszupin © Fernando Laszlo. Image © Fernando Laszlo Cortesia Etel Interiores
Poltrona Dinamarquesa_Jorge Zalszupin. Image © Fernando Laszlo Cortesia Etel Interiores
Mesa Andorinha_Jorge Zalszupin. Image © Fernando Laszlo Cortesia Etel Interiores
Cadeira Girafa_Lina Bo Bardi. Image © Nelson Kon
Cadeira Beira de estrada_Lina Bo Bardi. Image © Nelson Kon
Cadeira Isa d’aprés siza_Marcenaria Baraúna. Image Cortesia de Dpot
Cadeira Filó com braço_Marcenaria Baraúna. Image Cortesia de Dpot
Chaise Longue Rio_Oscar Niemeyer. Image © about-furniture
Cadeira Oswaldo Bratke © Fernando Laszlo. Image © Fernando Laszlo Cortesia Etel Interiores
Poltrona Paulistano_Paulo Mendes da Rocha. Image Cortesia de Dpot
Mobiliário Sesc 24 de Maio_Paulo Mendes da Rocha. Image © FLAGRANTE
Mesa de centro Zu_Ruy Ohtake. Image Cortesia de Dpot
Poltrona Rampa_Sérgio Bernardes. Image Cortesia de Dpot
Poltrona Mole_Sérgio Rodrigues. Image Cortesia de Dpot
Coleção Próteses e Enxertos_Studio MK27. Image © Reinaldo Coser
Poltrona Preguiça_Vilanova Artigas. Image Cortesia de Acervo Família Artigas
Cadeira Zanine N_Zanine Caldas. Image Cortesia de Dpot
Poltrona Cuca_Zanine Caldas. Image
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Tensile Structures: How Do They Work and What Are the Different Types?

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Munich Olympic Stadium / Behnisch and Partners & Frei Otto. Image <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Munich_-_Frei_Otto_Tensed_structures_-_5244.jpg'>© Jorge Royan via Wikimedia </a> License CC BY-SA 3.0 Munich Olympic Stadium / Behnisch and Partners & Frei Otto. Image <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Munich_-Frei_Otto_Tensed_structures-_5244.jpg'>© Jorge Royan via Wikimedia </a> License CC BY-SA 3.0 Historically inspired by some of the first man-made shelters—such as the black tents first developed using camel leather by the nomads of the Sahara Desert, Saudi Arabia, and Iran, as well as the structures used by Native American tribes—tensile structures offer a range of positive benefits compared to other structural models. Tensile structure is the term usually used to refer to the construction of roofs using a membrane held in place on steel cables. Their main characteristics are the way in which they work under stress tensile, their ease of pre-fabrication, their ability to cover large spans, and their malleability. This structural system calls for a small amount of material thanks to the use of thin canvases, which when stretched using steel cables, create surfaces capable of overcoming the forces
Munich Olympic Stadium  / Behnisch and Partners & Frei Otto. Image <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/57511216@N04/6583372233/in/photolist-b2KvcP-fNXihy-eaJSyu-YQkWig-bE1kPw-ba442a-4m1sDv-au5xNt-4m1skM-68LXjD-aj9U5Q-n9ZTpc-4m5uM7-bznKaE-au5xr4-bznTV3-gZSr4m-4m5ubJ-8u7nfP-dmEfVr-c2a12N-egdCtn-8u7nFk-c29YVS-7hyuu4-c29Zmm-4JEdFN-8uat85-egdA1r-8u7nKV-c29ZKQ-6TYUQX-4JEdoh-8ToTH9-fNXinW-4JEdMN-c29Z1d-5aidgt-c29ZgU-4JzZ8k-c29ZaW-8L5a2w-egjnE1-ddkoy7-8ToVhE-4V3vNm-4JEet3-8uash9-8L5b2f-zBusmf'>© Daniel via Flickr</a> License CC BY 2.0
Raleigh Arena / Fred Severud. Image <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cattle_judging_event_at_Dorton_Arena_(Cow_Palace)_before_roof_was_installed._October_15th_1952_(21981642200).jpg'>© Fæ via Wikimedia</a>
Munich Olympic Stadium / Behnisch and Partners & Frei Otto. Image <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/eager/17094374255/in/album-72157651280449886/'>© 準建築人手札網站 Forgemind ArchiMedia via Flickr </a> License CC BY 2.0
National Stadium of Brasilia "Mané Garrincha" / Castro Mello Architects. Image © Bento Viana
Nomenclatures of the cables (translations from Portuguese: "Cabo Periférico"=Peripheral Cable; "Cabo de Crista"=Ridge-Line Cable; "Cabos de Vale"=Valley Cables; "Cabos Estabilizantes"=Stabilizing Cables). Image © Matheus Pereira
Munich Olympic Stadium / Behnisch and Partners & Frei Otto. Image <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/schmollmolch/8233735185/in/photolist-dxA3Bt-dmE3Mb-RTcdSo-8DrTEN-8DoPvF-8DrSj9-he3HK7-bPTqfe-8L2uf6-dmE7mB-dmE8BP-nxca-dmEguU-bSV5te-zBFNnF-5jEmzd-VTKoGs-bE1kPw-68LXjD-8DoP3K-FdLXBz-atK7FP-5r1pJ-6EY13j-5jA5BK-8DoL9X-schro-oQEgnF-6DJhGS-TwB171-nxas-bAYL81-4Ub8vS-MUZiQM-eBxph8-PKeJTX-5ccQsd-5c8yLx-5c8Aqp-eBAxPN-FdLXB4-mjH4XK-NdSKj-mjJUz1-mjKdsq-ZZev1T-5c8zkF-bPTppp-7afCkh-5ccRvU'>© Christian Scheja via Flickr</a> License CC BY 2.0
German Pavilion at Expo 67 / Rolf Gutbrod. Image <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/mcgill-library/34022056762/in/photolist-UDi76k-UDi79X-98ECYH-TQpWay-UDi7dz-TQpWbW-s3runy'>© McGill Library via Flickr</a> License Public Domain Mark 1.0
Millennium Dome / Richard Rogers (RSHP). Image <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/jamesjin/58712717/'>© James Jin via Flickr</a> License CC BY-SA 2.0
Denver Union Station / SOM. Image © Robert Polidori
St. Christopher's Pavilion  / Sérgio Bernardes. Image via Bernardes Arquitetura
Maracanã Stadium Coverage / Schlaich Bergermann und Partner. Image © Marcus Bredt cortesia de Schlaich Bergermann und Partner
National Stadium of Brasilia "Mané Garrincha" / Castro Mello Architects. Image © Bento Viana
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Cross Ventilation, the Chimney Effect and Other Concepts of Natural Ventilation

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Sarah Kubitschek Hospital Salvador / João Filgueiras Lima. Image © Nelson Kon Sarah Kubitschek Hospital Salvador / João Filgueiras Lima. Image © Nelson Kon Nothing is more rational than using the wind, a natural, free, renewable and healthy resource, to improve the thermal comfort of our projects. The awareness of the finiteness of the resources and the demand for the reduction in the energy consumption has removed air-conditioning systems as the protagonist of any project. Architects and engineers are turning to this more passive system to improve thermal comfort. It is evident that there are extreme climates in which there is no escape, or else the use of artificial systems, but in a large part of the terrestrial surface it is possible to provide a pleasant flow of air through the environments by means of passive systems, especially if the actions are considered during the project stage. This is a highly complex theme, but we have approached some of the concepts exemplifying them
Casa Lee / Studio MK27. Image © Fernando Guerra
Sarah Kubitschek Hospital Salvador / João Filgueiras Lima. Image © Nelson Kon
Reichstag / Norman Foster. Image<a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/dorena-wm/4751295490/in/photostream/'>© Renate Dodell via Flickr </a> Licença CC BY-ND 2.0
Estratégias bioclimáticas do Edifício da Empresa de Desenvolvimento Urbano (EDU) em Medellin. Image Cortesia de EDU
Building of the Urban Development Company (EDU) in Medellin. Image © Alejandro Arango
Assembly Palace of Chandigarh / Le Corbusier. Image © Laurian Ghinitoiu
Ventilation by Brise Soleil Diagram. Image © Matheus Pereira
Windows Openings Diagram. Image © Matheus Pereira
Ventilation diagram. Image © Matheus Pereira
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How to Build a DIY Vertical Garden

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About thirty years ago, French landscape architect Patrick Blanc became a pioneer in the implementation of vertical gardens in Paris, and later in other cities around the world. Through the creation of vertical structures capable nourishing plant species, these systems allow species to grow on the facades of buildings, considerably reducing a structure's internal temperature and allowing the expansion of green areas to new (vertical) territories within the city. Blanc's creation was part of a series of developments in understanding what nature adds to the city, recognizing the value of green spaces and their contribution to social, environmental and urban policies.  Singapore, London, and São Paulo have used the system as an important technique in their goal to improve the quality of urban life.
© Matheus Pereira © Matheus Pereira

In the city of São Paulo, for example, the Movimento 90° founded in 2013 by Guil Blanche is already responsible for the construction of

© Felipe Gabriel Via Movimento 90°. ImageEdifício Santa Cruz
© Felipe Gabriel Via Movimento 90°. ImageEdifício Santos
© Gabriela Di Bella Via Movimento 90°. ImageAvenida 23 de Maio
© Matheus Pereira
© Matheus Pereira
© Matheus Pereira
© Helena Wolfenson Via Movimento 90°. ImageAvenida 23 de Maio
©Via Movimento 90°. ImageEdifício Santos
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