AD Classics: Vitra Fire Station / Zaha Hadid

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© Christian Richters © Christian Richters This article was originally published on April 21, 2016. To read the stories behind other celebrated architecture projects, visit our AD Classics section.

Although Zaha Hadid began her remarkable architectural career in the late 1970s, it would not be until the 1990s that her work would lift out her drawings and paintings to be realized in physical form. The Vitra Fire Station, designed for the factory complex of the same name in Weil-am-Rhein, Germany, was the among the first of Hadid’s design projects to be built. The building’s obliquely intersecting concrete planes, which serve to shape and define the street running through the complex, represent the earliest attempt to translate Hadid’s fantastical, powerful conceptual drawings into a functional architectural space.
Painting (Zaha Hadid). Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects Painting (Zaha Hadid). Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects
Model. Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects Model. Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects

The Vitra Campus is a vast complex comprising factories,

Model. Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects
© Christian Richters
© Christian Richters
©  Helene Binet
Painting (Zaha Hadid). Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects
Model. Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects
Continue reading "AD Classics: Vitra Fire Station / Zaha Hadid"

AD Classics: Vitra Fire Station / Zaha Hadid

    <figure>
© Christian Richters © Christian Richters This article was originally published on April 21, 2016. To read the stories behind other celebrated architecture projects, visit our AD Classics section.

Although Zaha Hadid began her remarkable architectural career in the late 1970s, it would not be until the 1990s that her work would lift out her drawings and paintings to be realized in physical form. The Vitra Fire Station, designed for the factory complex of the same name in Weil-am-Rhein, Germany, was the among the first of Hadid’s design projects to be built. The building’s obliquely intersecting concrete planes, which serve to shape and define the street running through the complex, represent the earliest attempt to translate Hadid’s fantastical, powerful conceptual drawings into a functional architectural space.
Painting (Zaha Hadid). Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects Painting (Zaha Hadid). Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects
Model. Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects Model. Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects

The Vitra Campus is a vast complex comprising factories,

Model. Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects
© Christian Richters
© Christian Richters
©  Helene Binet
Painting (Zaha Hadid). Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects
Model. Image Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects
Continue reading "AD Classics: Vitra Fire Station / Zaha Hadid"

AD Classics: Dutch Parliament Extension / OMA

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via OMA via OMA This article was originally published on April 22, 2016. To read the stories behind other celebrated architecture projects, visit our AD Classics section.

Designed shortly before Zaha Hadid left the Office of Metropolitan Architecture (OMA)—led by Rem Koolhaas—to found her practice, Zaha Hadid Architects, the proposed extension for the Dutch Parliament firmly rejects the notion that imitation is the sincerest form of flattery. Rather than mimic the style of the existing historic buildings, OMA elected to pay tribute to the complex’s accretive construction by inserting a collection of visibly postmodern, geometric elements. These new buildings, unapologetic products of the late 1970s, would have served as unmistakable indicators of the passage of time, creating a graphic reminder of the Parliament’s long history.
Model. Image via OMA Model. Image via OMA

The complex that houses the Dutch Parliament, known as the Binnenhof, is situated in the heart of The Hague – The Netherland’s

Het Binnenhof, Den Haag (Nederland). Image Courtesy of Flickr user Abdulsalam Haykal
Courtesy of A.D.A. EDITA Tokyo Co., Ltd.
"The Podium: Accommodation for Orgies of Speech". Image Courtesy of A.D.A. EDITA Tokyo Co., Ltd.
via OMA
via OMA
Continue reading "AD Classics: Dutch Parliament Extension / OMA"

AD Classics: Grundtvig’s Church / Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint

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Courtesy of Flickr user Flemming Ibsen Courtesy of Flickr user Flemming Ibsen

This article was originally published on July 28, 2016. To read the stories behind other celebrated architecture projects, visit our AD Classics section.

Six million yellow bricks on a hilltop just outside Copenhagen form one of the world’s foremost, if not perhaps comparatively unknown, Expressionist monuments. Grundtvigs Kirke (“Grundtvig’s Church”), designed by architect Peder Vilhelm Jensen Klint, was built between 1921 and 1940 as a memorial to N.F.S. Grundtvig – a famed Danish pastor, philosopher, historian, hymnist, and politician of the 19th century.[1] Jensen Klint, inspired by Grundtvig’s humanist interpretation of Christianity, merged the scale and stylings of a Gothic cathedral with the aesthetics of a Danish country church to create a landmark worthy of its namesake.[2]

It was decided in 1912 that Grundtvig, who had passed away in 1873, had been so significant to Danish history and culture that

Courtesy of Flickr user seier+seier
via grundtvigskirke.dk
via grundtvigskirke.dk
Courtesy of Flickr user Flemming Ibsen
Courtesy of Flickr user Flemming Ibsen
Courtesy of Flickr user Flemming Ibsen
via kk.dk
via kk.dk
Courtesy of Flickr user seier+seier
Courtesy of Flickr user seier+seier
Continue reading "AD Classics: Grundtvig’s Church / Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint"

AD Classics: World’s Columbian Exposition / Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted

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Viewed from the far end of the Great Basin, the Administration Building looms over the court of honor and the surrounding great buildings of the fair. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain) Viewed from the far end of the Great Basin, the Administration Building looms over the court of honor and the surrounding great buildings of the fair. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)

The United States had made an admirable showing for itself at the very first World’s Fair, the Crystal Palace Exhibition, held in the United Kingdom in 1851. British newspapers were unreserved in their praise, declaring America’s displayed inventions to be more ingenious and useful than any others at the Fair; the Liverpool Times asserted “no longer to be ridiculed, much less despised.” Unlike various European governments, which spent lavishly on their national displays in the exhibitions that followed, the US Congress was hesitant to contribute funds, forcing exhibitors to rely on individuals for support. Interest in international exhibitions fell during the nation’s bloody Civil War; things recovered quickly enough in the wake of the conflict, however,

A map of the 1893 Exposition shows how much of the fair’s buildings were laid out on axis with the court of honor. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user scewing (Public Domain)
Courtesy of Wikimedia user scewing (Public Domain
Courtesy of Wikimedia user Tuvalkin (Public Domain)
The magnificent Administration Building set the standard for all the main buildings at the Exposition. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
The Machinery Hall, or “Palace of Mechanic Arts,” displayed American industrial products and served as the White City’s power plant. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
The Agricultural Building housed some of the more bizarre displays at the Exposition, many of which were images or objects made of food by participating nations. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
The vast Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building easily dwarfed any other structure in the White City. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
Although the building itself was handsome, the exhibits of the United States Government Building failed to entice many of the fair’s visitors. In the foreground stands the Ho-O-Den, a replica medieval Japanese palace. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
With its colorful glazing and flags, the Fisheries Building stood apart from its Beaux-Arts neighbors and earned the admiration of many visitors. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
The Midway was a collection of various themed environments and funhouses which entertained visitors while simultaneously persuading them to spend more money on the fair. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
Towering over a fake Viennese street is the world’s first Ferris Wheel, one of the Exposition’s most popular attractions. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
Courtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
Continue reading "AD Classics: World’s Columbian Exposition / Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted"

AD Classics: World’s Columbian Exposition / Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted

    <figure>
Viewed from the far end of the Great Basin, the Administration Building looms over the court of honor and the surrounding great buildings of the fair. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain) Viewed from the far end of the Great Basin, the Administration Building looms over the court of honor and the surrounding great buildings of the fair. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)

The United States had made an admirable showing for itself at the very first World’s Fair, the Crystal Palace Exhibition, held in the United Kingdom in 1851. British newspapers were unreserved in their praise, declaring America’s displayed inventions to be more ingenious and useful than any others at the Fair; the Liverpool Times asserted “no longer to be ridiculed, much less despised.” Unlike various European governments, which spent lavishly on their national displays in the exhibitions that followed, the US Congress was hesitant to contribute funds, forcing exhibitors to rely on individuals for support. Interest in international exhibitions fell during the nation’s bloody Civil War; things recovered quickly enough in the wake of the conflict, however,

A map of the 1893 Exposition shows how much of the fair’s buildings were laid out on axis with the court of honor. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user scewing (Public Domain)
Courtesy of Wikimedia user scewing (Public Domain
Courtesy of Wikimedia user Tuvalkin (Public Domain)
The magnificent Administration Building set the standard for all the main buildings at the Exposition. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
The Machinery Hall, or “Palace of Mechanic Arts,” displayed American industrial products and served as the White City’s power plant. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
The Agricultural Building housed some of the more bizarre displays at the Exposition, many of which were images or objects made of food by participating nations. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
The vast Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building easily dwarfed any other structure in the White City. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
Although the building itself was handsome, the exhibits of the United States Government Building failed to entice many of the fair’s visitors. In the foreground stands the Ho-O-Den, a replica medieval Japanese palace. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
With its colorful glazing and flags, the Fisheries Building stood apart from its Beaux-Arts neighbors and earned the admiration of many visitors. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
The Midway was a collection of various themed environments and funhouses which entertained visitors while simultaneously persuading them to spend more money on the fair. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
Towering over a fake Viennese street is the world’s first Ferris Wheel, one of the Exposition’s most popular attractions. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
Courtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
Continue reading "AD Classics: World’s Columbian Exposition / Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted"

AD Classics: Master Plan for Chandigarh / Le Corbusier

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© Laurian Ghinitoiu © Laurian Ghinitoiu

On August 15, 1947, on the eve of India’s independence from the United Kingdom, came a directive which would transform the subcontinent for the next six decades. In order to safeguard the country’s Muslim population from the Hindu majority, the departing colonial leaders set aside the northwestern and eastern portions of the territory for their use. Many of the approximately 100 million Muslims living scattered throughout India were given little more than 73 days to relocate to these territories, the modern-day nations of Pakistan and Bangladesh. As the borders for the new countries were drawn by Sir Cyril Radcliffe (an Englishman whose ignorance of Indian history and culture was perceived, by the colonial government, as an assurance of his impartiality), the state of Punjab was bisected between India and Pakistan, the latter of which retained ownership of the state capital of Lahore.[1] It was in

Although Le Corbusier’s original plan still survives at the heart of Chandigarh, the city’s current population—three times its planned occupancy—means the city has expanded beyond its planned boundaries. ImageCourtesy of Mapin
© Laurian Ghinitoiu
© Laurian Ghinitoiu
Although Le Corbusier’s original plan still survives at the heart of Chandigarh, the city’s current population—three times its planned occupancy—means the city has expanded beyond its planned boundaries. ImageCourtesy of Mapin
© Laurian Ghinitoiu
© Laurian Ghinitoiu
Although the rest of the project team accepted it as an inevitability, Le Corbusier was never pleased with the categorization of housing into income levels and, in his disgust, withdrew from much of the project. ImageCourtesy of Mapin
Drawings for the lowest level of housing, Type 13D. ImageCourtesy of Mapin
Drawings for Type 5J Housing, intended for mid-level civil servants. ImageCourtesy of Mapin
© Laurian Ghinitoiu
© Laurian Ghinitoiu
© Laurian Ghinitoiu
A section through the Court House, or Palace of Justice, shows the aerofoil form of the roof, which curved down in a series of shallow arches to meet the box that formed the enclosed spaces of the building. ImageCourtesy of Mapin
© Laurian Ghinitoiu
Continue reading "AD Classics: Master Plan for Chandigarh / Le Corbusier"

AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)

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© <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack © <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack

Cloistered by a protective shell of stone, the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library is one of the world’s foremost collections of rare manuscripts. Opened in 1963, the library is renowned for its translucent marble façade and the world-renowned glass book tower sheltered within – a dramatic arrangement resulting from the particular requirements of a repository for literary artifacts. This unique design, very much in the Modernist lineage but in contrast to the revivalist styles of the rest of Yale’s campus, has only become appreciated thanks to the passage of time; the same bold choices which are now celebrated were once seen as a cause for contempt and outrage.

© Ezra Stoller/Esto © Ezra Stoller/Esto

Yale’s collection of rare manuscripts began in 1701, when ten ministers met to found a

© Ezra Stoller/Esto
© Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Continue reading "AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)"

AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)

    <figure>
© <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack © <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack

Cloistered by a protective shell of stone, the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library is one of the world’s foremost collections of rare manuscripts. Opened in 1963, the library is renowned for its translucent marble façade and the world-renowned glass book tower sheltered within – a dramatic arrangement resulting from the particular requirements of a repository for literary artifacts. This unique design, very much in the Modernist lineage but in contrast to the revivalist styles of the rest of Yale’s campus, has only become appreciated thanks to the passage of time; the same bold choices which are now celebrated were once seen as a cause for contempt and outrage.

© Ezra Stoller/Esto © Ezra Stoller/Esto

Yale’s collection of rare manuscripts began in 1701, when ten ministers met to found a

© Ezra Stoller/Esto
© Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Continue reading "AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)"

AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)

    <figure>
© <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack © <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack

Cloistered by a protective shell of stone, the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library is one of the world’s foremost collections of rare manuscripts. Opened in 1963, the library is renowned for its translucent marble façade and the world-renowned glass book tower sheltered within – a dramatic arrangement resulting from the particular requirements of a repository for literary artifacts. This unique design, very much in the Modernist lineage but in contrast to the revivalist styles of the rest of Yale’s campus, has only become appreciated thanks to the passage of time; the same bold choices which are now celebrated were once seen as a cause for contempt and outrage.

© Ezra Stoller/Esto © Ezra Stoller/Esto

Yale’s collection of rare manuscripts began in 1701, when ten ministers met to found a

© Ezra Stoller/Esto
© Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Continue reading "AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)"

AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)

    <figure>
© <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack © <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack

Cloistered by a protective shell of stone, the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library is one of the world’s foremost collections of rare manuscripts. Opened in 1963, the library is renowned for its translucent marble façade and the world-renowned glass book tower sheltered within – a dramatic arrangement resulting from the particular requirements of a repository for literary artifacts. This unique design, very much in the Modernist lineage but in contrast to the revivalist styles of the rest of Yale’s campus, has only become appreciated thanks to the passage of time; the same bold choices which are now celebrated were once seen as a cause for contempt and outrage.

© Ezra Stoller/Esto © Ezra Stoller/Esto

Yale’s collection of rare manuscripts began in 1701, when ten ministers met to found a

© Ezra Stoller/Esto
© Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Continue reading "AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)"

AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)

    <figure>
© <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack © <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack

Cloistered by a protective shell of stone, the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library is one of the world’s foremost collections of rare manuscripts. Opened in 1963, the library is renowned for its translucent marble façade and the world-renowned glass book tower sheltered within – a dramatic arrangement resulting from the particular requirements of a repository for literary artifacts. This unique design, very much in the Modernist lineage but in contrast to the revivalist styles of the rest of Yale’s campus, has only become appreciated thanks to the passage of time; the same bold choices which are now celebrated were once seen as a cause for contempt and outrage.

© Ezra Stoller/Esto © Ezra Stoller/Esto

Yale’s collection of rare manuscripts began in 1701, when ten ministers met to found a

© Ezra Stoller/Esto
© Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Continue reading "AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)"

AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)

    <figure>
© <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack © <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack

Cloistered by a protective shell of stone, the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library is one of the world’s foremost collections of rare manuscripts. Opened in 1963, the library is renowned for its translucent marble façade and the world-renowned glass book tower sheltered within – a dramatic arrangement resulting from the particular requirements of a repository for literary artifacts. This unique design, very much in the Modernist lineage but in contrast to the revivalist styles of the rest of Yale’s campus, has only become appreciated thanks to the passage of time; the same bold choices which are now celebrated were once seen as a cause for contempt and outrage.

© Ezra Stoller/Esto © Ezra Stoller/Esto

Yale’s collection of rare manuscripts began in 1701, when ten ministers met to found a

© Ezra Stoller/Esto
© Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Continue reading "AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)"

AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)

    <figure>
© <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack © <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack

Cloistered by a protective shell of stone, the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library is one of the world’s foremost collections of rare manuscripts. Opened in 1963, the library is renowned for its translucent marble façade and the world-renowned glass book tower sheltered within – a dramatic arrangement resulting from the particular requirements of a repository for literary artifacts. This unique design, very much in the Modernist lineage but in contrast to the revivalist styles of the rest of Yale’s campus, has only become appreciated thanks to the passage of time; the same bold choices which are now celebrated were once seen as a cause for contempt and outrage.

© Ezra Stoller/Esto © Ezra Stoller/Esto

Yale’s collection of rare manuscripts began in 1701, when ten ministers met to found a

© Ezra Stoller/Esto
© Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Continue reading "AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)"

AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)

    <figure>
© <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack © <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack

Cloistered by a protective shell of stone, the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library is one of the world’s foremost collections of rare manuscripts. Opened in 1963, the library is renowned for its translucent marble façade and the world-renowned glass book tower sheltered within – a dramatic arrangement resulting from the particular requirements of a repository for literary artifacts. This unique design, very much in the Modernist lineage but in contrast to the revivalist styles of the rest of Yale’s campus, has only become appreciated thanks to the passage of time; the same bold choices which are now celebrated were once seen as a cause for contempt and outrage.

© Ezra Stoller/Esto © Ezra Stoller/Esto

Yale’s collection of rare manuscripts began in 1701, when ten ministers met to found a

© Ezra Stoller/Esto
© Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Continue reading "AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)"

AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)

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© <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack © <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack

Cloistered by a protective shell of stone, the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library is one of the world’s foremost collections of rare manuscripts. Opened in 1963, the library is renowned for its translucent marble façade and the world-renowned glass book tower sheltered within – a dramatic arrangement resulting from the particular requirements of a repository for literary artifacts. This unique design, very much in the Modernist lineage but in contrast to the revivalist styles of the rest of Yale’s campus, has only become appreciated thanks to the passage of time; the same bold choices which are now celebrated were once seen as a cause for contempt and outrage.

© Ezra Stoller/Esto © Ezra Stoller/Esto

Yale’s collection of rare manuscripts began in 1701, when ten ministers met to found a

© Ezra Stoller/Esto
© Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
Plan. Image © Ezra Stoller/Esto
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AD Classics: Red House / William Morris and Philip Webb

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The L-shaped footprint of the building allows it to focus in on the garden. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Gabrielle Ludlow (licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) The L-shaped footprint of the building allows it to focus in on the garden. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Gabrielle Ludlow (licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

In the heart of a suburb just east of London stands an incongruous red brick villa. With its pointed arched window frames and towering chimneys, the house was designed to appear  like a relic of the Middle Ages. In reality, its vintage dates to the 1860’s. This is Red House, the Arts and Crafts home of artist William Morris and his family. Built as a rebuttal to an increasingly industrialized age, Red House’s message has been both diminished by the passage of time and, over the course of the centuries, been cast in greater relief against its context.

Although relatively austere, the varying rooflines, oriel window, and pointed arch window frames add Gothic flair to the otherwise simplistic Red House. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Gabrielle Ludlow (licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) Although relatively austere, the varying rooflines, oriel window, and pointed arch window frames add Gothic flair to the otherwise simplistic Red House. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Gabrielle
Courtesy of Flickr user KotomiCreations (licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0)
The centerpiece of Red House’s garden is a well topped with a steep conical roof. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Gabrielle Ludlow (licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
The painted front door is undeniably medieval in character; the stained glass window panes are not original. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user KotomiCreations (licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0)
Morris’ hand-painted settle in the entry hall features a depiction of a scene from the German epic the Niebelungenlied. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user KotomiCreations (licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0)
This stained glass window, depicting Love and Hate, was one of many designed by friends and family of William Morris throughout Red House. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user KotomiCreations (licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0)
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AD Classics: World’s Columbian Exposition / Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted

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Viewed from the far end of the Great Basin, the Administration Building looms over the court of honor and the surrounding great buildings of the fair. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain) Viewed from the far end of the Great Basin, the Administration Building looms over the court of honor and the surrounding great buildings of the fair. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)

The United States had made an admirable showing for itself at the very first World’s Fair, the Crystal Palace Exhibition, held in the United Kingdom in 1851. British newspapers were unreserved in their praise, declaring America’s displayed inventions to be more ingenious and useful than any others at the Fair; the Liverpool Times asserted “no longer to be ridiculed, much less despised.” Unlike various European governments, which spent lavishly on their national displays in the exhibitions that followed, the US Congress was hesitant to contribute funds, forcing exhibitors to rely on individuals for support. Interest in international exhibitions fell during the nation’s bloody Civil War; things recovered quickly enough in the wake of the conflict, however,

A map of the 1893 Exposition shows how much of the fair’s buildings were laid out on axis with the court of honor. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user scewing (Public Domain)
Courtesy of Wikimedia user scewing (Public Domain
Courtesy of Wikimedia user Tuvalkin (Public Domain)
The magnificent Administration Building set the standard for all the main buildings at the Exposition. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
The Machinery Hall, or “Palace of Mechanic Arts,” displayed American industrial products and served as the White City’s power plant. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
The Agricultural Building housed some of the more bizarre displays at the Exposition, many of which were images or objects made of food by participating nations. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
The vast Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building easily dwarfed any other structure in the White City. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
Although the building itself was handsome, the exhibits of the United States Government Building failed to entice many of the fair’s visitors. In the foreground stands the Ho-O-Den, a replica medieval Japanese palace. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
With its colorful glazing and flags, the Fisheries Building stood apart from its Beaux-Arts neighbors and earned the admiration of many visitors. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
The Midway was a collection of various themed environments and funhouses which entertained visitors while simultaneously persuading them to spend more money on the fair. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
Towering over a fake Viennese street is the world’s first Ferris Wheel, one of the Exposition’s most popular attractions. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
Courtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
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AD Classics: Haus am Horn / Georg Muche

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An axonometric diagram shows the arrangement of living spaces centered around the living room. ImageDrawing by Georg Muche An axonometric diagram shows the arrangement of living spaces centered around the living room. ImageDrawing by Georg Muche

In 1919, at a time in which Germany was still in upheaval over its defeat in the First World War, coupled with the loss of its monarchy, the Academy of Fine Arts and School of Applied Arts in Weimar, Germany, were combined to form the first Bauhaus. Its stated goal was to erase the separation that had developed between artists and craftsmen, combining the talents of both occupations in order to achieve a unified architectonic feeling which they believed had been lost in the divide. Students of the Bauhaus were to abandon the framework of design standards that had been developed by traditional European schools and experiment with natural materials, abstract forms, and their own intuitions. Although the school’s output was initially Expressionist in nature, by 1922 it had evolved into

A copy of Georg Muche’s original permit drawings for the Haus am Horn. From each perspective, the spatial prominence of the central living room is inescapable
Despite being surrounded by other spaces, the raised clerestory of the living room makes it instantly visible as one approaches the house. ImageCourtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V.
Courtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V.. Image © Cameron Blaylock
Courtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V.. Image © Cameron Blaylock
The innovative kitchen of the Haus am Horn as it appears today. In keeping with the trends of the time, the room’s design prioritized efficiency in both function and layout. ImageCourtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V.
Courtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V.. Image © Cameron Blaylock
A direct line of sight from the children’s room (in the foreground) to the kitchen allowed for a mother to keep watch over her children without the aid of a servant. ImageCourtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V.
Courtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V.. Image © Cameron Blaylock
Courtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V.. Image © Cameron Blaylock
Courtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V.. Image © Cameron Blaylock
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AD Classics: Himeji Castle / Ikeda Terumasa

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The white plaster walls and sweeping terraces of Himeji-jo inspire its other name, “Castle of the White Heron.” . ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Oren Rozen (licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0) The white plaster walls and sweeping terraces of Himeji-jo inspire its other name, “Castle of the White Heron.” . ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Oren Rozen (licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0)

With its gleaming white walls and elegantly terraced roofs, it is easy to forget that Himeji Castle was built as a fortress . Standing on two hilltops in the city of Himeji, the old fortress, also known as Himeji-jo, is the greatest surviving example of Japanese castle architecture from the early years of the Shogunate, which governed the island nation from the late 1500s to the 19th Century. Although never tested in battle, the castle’s elaborate defensive measures represent the best strategic design the period produced. While these measures have since been rendered obsolete, the same cannot be said for the castle’s soaring, pristine aesthetic, which earned it the nickname Shirasagi-jo – “Castle of the White Heron.”

From the towers of the Hommaru, one can see the Hishi Gate and, further out, the trees and lawns of the Nishi-no-Maru. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Oren Rozen (licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0)
This map from the Himeji City Castle Laboratory Collection depicts the concentric lines of defense surrounding Himeji Castle. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user ブレイズマン (Public Domain)
Courtesy of Wikimedia user Oren Rozen (licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0)
A period image depicts the labor needed to construct Ikeda Terumasa’s grand new Himeji Castle. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user ブレイズマン (Public Domain)
A cutaway model of the main keep reveals not only the pair of structural columns that run the full height of the building, but the network of living quarters and defensive galleries that make up the tower. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Corpse Reviver (licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0)
Courtesy of Wikimedia user Corpse Reviver (licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0)
Although the choice of ceramic roofs was a practical form of defense against fire, it also allowed for the daimyo’s seal to be emblazoned on the end of each tile. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Corpse Reviver (licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0)
Courtesy of Flickr user Ben Kubota (licensed under CC BY 2.0)
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